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In general, most of all petroleum reservoirs contain clay/shale minerals; i.e. iron based, sodium based, and aluminum base. It is of most importance to protect the water sensitive clays from becoming a damaging threat to permeability via swelling and, or migration. These clays are trapped into the reservoir matrix and when exposed to water and, or a treatment fluid without protection, two events take place; swelling (plugging pores) and migrating-dispersing throughout the reservoir resulting in production loss.
Clay Ste Adv™ is an excellent KCl Substitute (Potassium Chloride Substitute) that works as a Clay Stabilizer by inhibiting clay swellings and mitigation. It performance is guaranteed by exemplary results in Capillary Suction Tests and Roller Oven Testing. It is extensively used in oil well drilling, fracturing or fracking.
Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock formed by the compression of muds. It is chiefly composed of aluminum silicates found in clays that are platy in structure. Clays have the tendency to swell when exposed to water, creating a potential drilling hazard and reducing permeability of a good reservoir rock. Minimizing clay swelling is important and can be achieved by addition of ClaSte-PAP, a quaternary compound, to water based drilling muds and fracturing fluids. ClaSte-PAP can be used in conjunction with other clay inhibitors like potassium chloride, polymeric cloud point clay inhibitors or other quaternary compounds. Some combinations may display synergistic efficiency in clay control.The product has been tested in accordance with published protocols.
Example of a shale rock. USGOV
|Clay Inhibitor||Capillary Suction Test
Efficiency vs. 2% KCl*
|Dispersion Test, Clay Retained,** %|
|pH 9||pH 12|
|2% KCl||0% (baseline)||54||60|
|Density||0.97 g/cm3 @ 23°C|
|Pour point||<-10°C (14°F)|
Figure: Viscosity of water base drilling mud after incremental addition of bentonite, pH12.
ClaSte-PAP should be added at 1-3 gallons per thousand to fracturing fluids and 2-5 gallons per thousand to drilling muds. ClaSte-PAP can be combined with other clay inhibiting agents. However, we recommend testing products compatibility before mixing inhibitors.
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